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什么是菩提心?如何发菩提心?(双语开示)

佛学常识 | 发表时间:2017-09-13 | 作者:久晃法师 [投稿]

什么是菩提心?如何发菩提心?(双语开示)

  我们学佛首先就要发佛一样的心,也就是发菩提心,普利有情,愿与一切众生共成佛道。这里就包括了大悲心和般若智慧两个方面。有大悲心才能普利有情,而最大的利乐莫过于帮助众生解脱成佛,而想成就佛道必搞懂般若法。也就是为了帮助众生解脱成佛,自己首先要通达佛法大道,如果你自己都没弄懂怎么成就佛道,自己还是个迷茫中的糊涂人,又怎么能帮助他人成就呢?这就如同我要让大家去某个寺院的大殿拜佛,如果我自己还不知怎么能去呢,就想指引大家去,这个事不就奇了怪了嘛。你想象一下,我站着喊:“去啊去啊,那个地方可好了,到那地方就得大利益,就见性开悟成佛了。”人家问我:“师父,怎么走啊?”我说:“呵呵!我也不知道,你就自己想办法走吧。”这样行么,不行!对吧?

  As Buddhists, we should, mostimportantly, learn from the Buddha and generate the Bohdichitta, wishing allsentient beings to achieve enlightenment and complete liberation, and finally attainthe ultimate Buddhahood altogether.

  Bodhichitta consists of twoaspects: great compassion and Prajna wisdom. With great compassion, we can doeverything beneficial to others. The biggest merit is, of course, to help allsentient beings to attain Buddhahood. In order to do this, however, we needPrajna wisdom first. In other words, if we wish to help all sentient beings toattain Buddhahood, we ourselves must know the way. How can we help others if weare still at a loss of what Buddhahood is and how to attain it?

  What a strange thing it would beif we don’t know the way to the monastery while we want to show others how toget there. Just imagine, I stand here shouting to everyone: “Let’s go. There’sa very good monastery. As soon as we get there, we know how to become aBuddha!” Then someone asks me “How can I get there?” I simply answer “I have noidea either. You may try to find the way yourself.”

  Will this do? Obviously not!

  也就是说: 若想帮助别人,自己要先通达,自己通达了才能指导别人。而且,无论什么事,自己搞明白了就真简单,特别是这成佛的大道,大道至简。当然欲想帮助别人,也要有善巧方便。对于一个刚接触佛法,有求心还比较重的人来说,你可以先告诉他学佛能得到什么,比如说皈依的功德,放生的功德,对吧?但是你千万不要逮到一个人就说,你学佛吧,你学佛吧……。逮到一个人就劝,一个人劝不动就大家劝。我们佛教随缘的,我们大家皈依都是自愿皈依的吧,你皈依后又没给大家任务:这一个月之内你必须找三个人来皈依,没这样布置是吧?肯定没有,因为我们佛教根本就没有这种事了,都是大家自己机缘成熟就来了。

  This means that as long as wewant to help others, we must know the way ourselves. When we know the wayclearly, anything becomes easy and simply. It’s especially true with Buddhahoodattainment, as we always say “the way to the ultimate achievement is theeasiest and simplest.”

  It is only natural that there aresome skillful and convenient ways to accord with the different situations andconditions of different sentient beings. For example, for a beginner who juststarts to learn Buddhism and wishes to gain something, we may tell him themerits of Buddhist conversion or the benefits of releasing captive lives, etc.

  However, it’ll become a kind ofattachment if we persistently try to persuade anyone we know to convert toBuddhism. Instead, we should do everything in accordance with conditions andsituations, as all of us become Buddhists out of our own accord instead of aforced choice. Have we been assigned any tasks that we must find some people tocome for conversion? Definitely not! There’s no compulsion in Buddhism. As soonas one’s lucky chance comes, he would come naturally and willingly.  

  佛法是研究和揭示生命规律和生命本性,以帮助我们实现生命究竟解脱和快乐的。比如,很多人说本性是善的,也有的人说本性是恶的,这都是人们从现象界表面的感知,都是不正确的。那么本性到底是什么样的?本性是净的,是清净的,是不生不灭,不垢不净,不增不减,如如不动,没恶也没善的。我们要想回归本来面目就要“不思善不思恶”,这样净了,不再分别了,本性即刻显现。

  Buddhism is the ultimate lifescience which specially studies and reveals the law and the nature of life withthe ultimate goal of helping all sentient beings to achieve complete liberationand ever-lasting happiness. For example, many people say that the self natureis virtuous while others may say it is vicious. In fact, neither of thesejudgments is right, since they’re both based on our superficial perceptionabout the outside world.

  What’s the self nature like? It’sclear and empty. It is neither arising nor ceasing, neither defiled norpurified, neither increasing nor decreasing. It remains undisturbed with nodifferentiation of virtuousness or viciousness. To go back to the self nature,we must discard any differentiations such as the dualistic judgment of virtueor evil. As long as we keep our mind empty, freeing it from any attachments ordifferentiations, we see the self nature instantly.

  学佛首先就是要发一个大心,发心利乐无边有情,愿一切众生离苦得乐。这个心怎么发?要担当,把这个事担当起来。担当到什么程度呢?你可以先做个假设:如果有一天观音菩萨退心了,他不再担当了,甚至诸大菩萨都不再担当了,那怎么办?我来担当,我干,任何人不干了我也要干下去!就这么发心,我担了,不要靠别人,别的任何人都不可靠了,自己最可靠。如果有一天发现你都不可靠了,那就麻烦了,连你自己都不可靠了,佛法还有什么希望呢?

  As real Buddhists, we should makecompassionate wishes to benefit all sentient beings by helping them to get freefrom the pains of Samsara and gain everlasting happiness. How can we realizesuch wishes? The only right way is to bravely and willingly bear theresponsibility ourselves. We should to be so strong willed that nothing shallchange our mind to carry on the responsibility, even if one day we find all theBodhisattvas have given it up. We shall depend on nobody but ourselves. Therewill be no hope for Buddhism if we ourselves become unreliable and give it upsomeday.

  所以,首先自己发心顶住,“我来担当!”有人也许会说:哎呀!师父,我现在不行啊,我都老了;或说:师父,我不行啊,我虽然年轻,我身体不好啊;或说:师父,我没有钱啊;那个又说:师父,我没有能力,我既没权又没钱呀。那么我们仔细想想:你说有权就行吗,有钱就行吗?还真不行。谁行?谁发了这个心谁就行,你没发这个心你就永远都不行。这个就好像你给一个孩子当母亲,这个孩子将要出生,或者已经出生了,你看着这个婴儿啊,你发起一个决定:我要为他如何如何。然后你才能去担当,你才能每天不睡觉照顾他,放弃种种快乐去为孩子做一切付出。要不然你凭啥啊?你跑这来了,我就得付出这么多?拿出一百块钱给孩子买的这个小衣服、玩具等等,还得想着计账,到什么时候你得赔我一百五,要不然我赔了,会不会啊?你要发了做父母的心以后,你什么都可以拿出来了。这不,“舍心”就回来了嘛。这个人人都能做到。由此可见,我们每个人都有慈悲喜舍心的,但是想成佛就一定要大慈、大悲、大喜、大舍。我们凡夫人就是缺少一个“大”字。我们佛子就必须要有这样的大心,没有升起来的一定要升起这个大心,已经升起来的就要坚固。

  Consequently, we ourselves must carry it on with the strongest determination.Someone might say “Master, I can’t do it now. You see I am quite old”。 Anothermay say “Master, neither can I. Young as I am, I don’t have enough abilitybecause I’m poor in health”。 One finds an excuse that he has no money andanother says that he has neither money nor right.

  Let’s think it over. Even if onehas enough money and right, will he bear the responsibility? I’m afraid not.Without strong willpower and determination, no one can carry on suchresponsibilities. Who can? Only those who make such a determination can.

  Take the case of a mother forexample. As soon as her baby is born, she will make a determination to doeverything for it. With such a determination, she becomes brave enough to bear allthe responsibilities of a mother. She looks after her baby without sleep nightby night. She is willing to give up all entertainments and sacrifice whateverneeded for the baby. By doing so, however, she never expects any returns fromher baby. This is the so-called equanimity. All of us can do it, which meansthat we all have the four sublime states of mind---loving-kindness, compassion,sympathetic joy and equanimity.

  However, to achieve Buddhahood,we need grander and more generous loving-kindness, compassion, sympathetic joyand equanimity. What we are lack of is “grandness” or “generosity”。 Therefore,we must cultivate and consolidate a grand and generous heart in order to bearthe grand responsibility to benefit all sentient beings.

  下面我们具体看看慈悲喜舍,于大慈、大悲、大喜、大舍之间的差别。慈心是什么?那个孩子刚出生,你一抱,哎哟,那个心都软软的,那就是慈心。悲心是什么?自己孩子得了新生儿肺炎,那个心疼呀。哎哟!都抽搐了,这怎么办呢?刚发完心我要把你培养成人,结果你得病,就抽了。这个时候你会怎么想?你一定会说我愿意用双倍的痛苦来换孩子的健康和快乐。很多父母都这样的,这就是悲心。悲心导致了舍心,你为了孩子敢把自己舍出去,所以你给孩子舍财,买东买西的,供孩子上好的学校,这就是舍心啊,愿意给他付出呀,从心里就愿意,真想给与呀。看着孩子长大了,孩子在幼儿园拿了个小红花,你比孩子还高兴,从心里美啊!这就是喜心啊!这个慈悲喜舍,是凡夫人的慈悲喜舍。

  Let’s take a look at thedifferences between the loving-kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy andequanimity of an ordinary man and a Bodhisattva. What is loving-kindness?Seeing the baby born, you hold it in your arms with such great love that youheart is filled with tenderness and happiness. This is typical loving-kindness.

  When the new-born baby sufferspneumonia, you worry so much that your heart aches and convulses. What do youthink? You will be willing to suffer two times more in order to exchange forthe good health and happiness of your baby. This is compassion which allparents have.

  Such compassion leads to equanimity.You’re so generous to your baby that you are willing to sacrifice yourself andall you have for the happiness of your baby, paying for everything the baby needsincluding good education. This is a mother’s equanimity with complete devotionand generosity.

  Seeing the baby growing up andwin a prize at school, you are so proud that you feel like the happiest motherin the world. This is sympathetic joy. However, all these merits are just theloving-kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy and equanimity of an ordinarymother for her baby.

  那么我们佛弟子就是把这个慈悲喜舍放大了,把对自己孩子的这个心平等扩大到无边众生,希望每一个众生都好起来。那好到什么程度呢?希望每一个众生都究竟快乐、究竟解脱、成就佛道。成佛才是彻底离一切苦,是得究竟快乐,是无上呀!所以,发起这样的愿一切众生解脱成佛的心,把它当成自己的责任。只要你把这事当成你的责任,你就能干这事了。就这样发心。 我们有了这样发心,你就必然会为此寻找道路,去求法,去悟般若……。般若是成佛之道路,悟透般若,成就之路就清楚了,通达了。这时我们就有能力带领众生解脱成佛了。

  As Buddhists, we should promote thefour merits of a mother into grand loving-kindness, grand compassion, grandsympathetic joy and grand equanimity, which means to extend our sublime meritsto all sentient beings. We should make wishes for all sentient beings to enjoycomplete liberation and ever-lasting happiness through the ultimate Buddhahoodattainment, since Buddhahood attainment is the only way that saves us from allpains and miseries and leads us to complete liberation and happiness.

  Therefore, we must make suchwishes and be brave and generous enough to take the responsibility. As long aswe shoulder the responsibility, we will be capable enough to do it. With such adetermination, we shall search for the right way, the appraoches and Prajnawisdom. With Prajna wisdom, we shall be able to tread on the right path leadingto Buddhahood attainment. Meanwhile, we shall have the ability to help allsentient beings to achieve the ultimate Buddhahood.

  总之,学佛主要就是两个方面,一个是发心,一个是观照。 也有人问,“想观照,但心不净,老跑念了怎么办?”这里我告诉你:没事,跑了再回来嘛。就像我们学骑自行车,摔倒了再上去嘛!时间长了就不倒了。但是你得用功练,一定要练会。不清净的时候,就得马上警觉,快回到般若上来。

  All in all, thereare two aspects of Buddhist practice, one being Bodhichitta, the other beingmindfulness. Someone may ask “My mind always slips away when doing meditation.What should I do if I can’t keep a clear and empty mind?  “ Let me tell you this: It’s all right foryour mind to slip away. You simply need to draw it back. Just like learning toride a bicycle. You simply need to get on the bike and try again if you falloff. You will never fall off again after a long-time practice. The key is thatyou must keep on trying and practicing. It’s the same with mindfulnesspractice. As soon as you are slipping away, you must become conscious of it andimmediately come back to Prajna practice.

译者:若水隆丹

Translated by Diana Zhang

  原标题:如何发菩提心(久晃法师双语开示系列)

  文章转自微信公众号:久晃讲般若

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