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佛法是怎么认识因果的?(双语开示)

佛学常识 | 发表时间:2017-10-09 | 作者:久晃法师 [投稿]

佛法是怎么认识因果的?(双语开示)

  我们都知道佛教讲因果,现实中也讲因果,马克思主义哲学也讲因果论,那么佛法是怎么认识因果的呢?佛教的因果是围绕生命规律来说的,是对一切生命现象,及生命规律的解释。具有对我们的心理、语言及其它各种生命行为的指导价值。

  It is common knowledge that Buddhismregards the law of cause and effect as the basic law of this world, which isalso the common belief of the ordinary people. Even Marxist philosophy stresseson the law of cause and effect. What are the differences? How does Buddhismexplain the law of cause and effect?

  In Buddha’s teachings, the law ofcause and effect is also called Karma, which is based on the law of life, andis the ultimate explanation about the phenomena of life and the law of life.Consequently, it offers significant guidance for the mentality, speech andbehavior of all sentient beings.    

  谈到因果,我们首先要知道什么是果,其实所谓果就是我们每一当下所受。眼睛见到什么,耳朵听到什么,鼻子嗅到什么,舌头感受到了什么味道,身体感受到什么,甚至也包括心理的感受,都是受。也可以说是自己的现状就是果。或者用现代的词汇说,果就是你当下所处的平台。这就是果。

  Talking about Karma, we need to clarifythe two concepts: the cause of karma and the effect of karma.

  First of all, what is the effectof karma, or the fruit of karma? The effect of karma actually refers to our experiencesat every instant---what we see, hear, smell, taste, and how we feel physicallyand mentally. In other words, the different present situations we are facing orthe platform we are staying are the different effects of karma from ourprevious deeds.

  那么什么是因呢?就是你面对这些感受的反应,首先是心理反应,然后是语言和行为。这就会影响未来自己的果报了,就是造因了。也可以说,我们面对自己当前所处的平台,有了什么反应,想了什么,说了什么,做了什么,这就造因了,就潜移默化地塑造着未来的平台。现在的因就将招致或改变着未来的果报。也就是我们时刻站在当前的平台上,时刻造作各种因,又时刻受着各种果。

  On theother hand, the cause of karma, or the seed of karma, is our responses to theabove experiences, most importantly our psychological responses, followed byour corresponding speeches or behaviors. Our diversified responses plantdifferent seeds of Karma, affecting our future effect of karma. In other words,our different responses to our physical and mental experiences, including whatwe speak, what we do, we think about, and how we feel, unconsciously create ourfuture situations. The present cause will definitely change the future effect.Standing on the current platform, we are constantly creating causes, and at thesame time, enduring the corresponding effects from the previous causes we havecreated.。

  每一个生命就是这样不断受果,不断造因,因果循环往复不断。造因受果,因不同,果不同。同样的心理面对不同的平台,必然会产生不同的心灵造作,也就是造不同的因;那么,不同的心理,同样的平台,也必然会发生不同的反应,也就造作不同的因;同一个人不同时空,不同情绪,面对相同的环境平台,也会发生不同的反应,造不同的因。所以,我们看到世界上绝没有两个完全相同的事物。

  Everylife is constantly recycling in karma, creating causes and enduring theeffects. Different causes lead to different effects. Whether we are standing onthe same or different platforms, our psychological responses are always different.What’s more, whenfacing different time and situations, even the same person will have differentfeelings and responses. All these different responses create diversified causes.As a result, we can never see two lives that are exactly the same.

  所以人们说在我们这个世界,差异是绝对的,就是这个道理。对于我们每一个人来说长相不同,每时每刻的果报也不同。同样的孩子,有的人出生就有尊严在,有地位;有的人一生下来就被扔到垃圾箱、下水道里了。这两孩子的果报差异太大了吧?为什么会这样呢?这是前世的因今世感受果报。但果报不一定是前世的因,现世造因就可以感受果报的。因为人一出生就有思维,就有想法,就想表达,就有行为,造因就开始了。至于这些因什么时候感招出果报,那要看不同时间及不同空间所造因的强弱多少,还有其它善恶诸因等等诸多因素所影响和所决定。

  This is why diversity is absolutein this world. Each individual has a different appearance and a differentkarma. One was born with dignity, wealth, and tender love while another wasdiscarded into the dustbin or sewer as soon as he was born. What leads to suchdifferences? It’s all due to the previous causes one has created, including thecauses from the previous life or that of this life. We were born with differentmodes of thinking which lead to different ideas and different behaviors, thusforming the different causes of karma. The time for the causes of karma tobecome effectual depends on such factors as whether the causes of karma we havecreated is weak or strong, positive or negative.

  有人说我们也常常看到有人做了好事却没看见有好报,命运还不如某些做坏事的人。其实这是对因果的误解。做好事必有好报,但什么时候报,要有成熟的机缘;再者,做几次好事不等于一生都在做好事了,更不等于往昔世都一直在做好事。现在所做好事的因也许明天才能成熟才能感果,但过去的恶果已经成熟了,你不能不让人家出现吧?因果规律不是这么看的。人的因果就好比种地,每个人都有一块地,各自种自己的种子,种子不同,用心不同,收获就必然不同,所以世上人是美丑、贫富、高低、贵贱、三六九等各有不同。

  Some people say, “I can’t see thepositive karma of kind deeds, because kind people don’t always live as happily,luckily or wealthily as those who do evils.”

  This is a misunderstanding ofkarma. Positive causes of karma will definitely lead to positive effects, butit needs time and chances for the karma to become ripe and effectual. What’smore, several good deeds don’t mean one has been doing good deeds all thislife, not to say all his lives from beginningless time. The present positivekarma may become ripe and effectual tomorrow, but the past karma has ripen, howcan we stop it from becoming effectual?

  Karma, the law of cause andeffect, is just like farmers planting drops. Each farmer plants different seedswith different cares, thoughts and expectations. As a result, he will enjoydifferent harvests. This is exactly the reason for all the different states oflives, beautiful or ugly, rich or poor, respectful or humble, etc.。     

  这也好比每个人一个篮子,里面装了很多不同的小球,我们每时每刻的心理行为就像在往篮子里装不同的小球,有好的也有坏的,篮子下面有个小孔,随时从孔里往外掉球,你上面不停的装,小孔不停的漏,你装的好球多,漏的好球就必然多;装的全是好球,将来篮子里的坏球都漏光了,也就只有好球了。但不一定你装一个好球就一定会漏出一个好球啊。

  Here isgood example to explain karma: each of us has a basket with a hole at thebottom. We keep filling the basket with different balls, good or bad. At thesame time, these balls keep dropping out from the hole at the bottom. Theresult is that the more good balls are put in, the more good balls will bedropped out. Vise Versa. The balls we put in are the causes of karma we createand the balls dropped out are the effects of karma we shall endure.

  所以,讲因果最好是和老年人讲,比较容易懂,因为老年人在世上活的时间长,一个人无论是否聪明,是否机敏,如果是很有包容力,吃亏上当也不计较,但这种人五年、十年,甚至二十年,你再看,他会变得厚重、可敬、值得信赖,这是长期善心所凝结出来的生命的气息;相反如果一个人每天想的是损人利己,挑逗是非,甚至做一些伤天害理的事,你看他五年、十年,乃至二十年,他会被众人疏远,甚至藐视,变得潦倒坎坷,甚至不能善终。

  It’s easier for senior people tounderstand karma, because they have lived longer in this world and can see moreclearly how the law of cause and effect functions. A man with a tolerant andkind heart, who seldom minds of being cheated or taken advantage of, willbecome respectable and reliable in one or two decades of years. This is theresult of long-term kindness and tolerance. On the contrary, a selfish andnarrow-minded man with only negative thoughts and deeds will be alienated anddespised of in the long run, and even suffer a miserable life and death eventually. 

  其实,我们在发出善心的一霎那,善报就已经开始了,这时你会感觉心里舒服、坦荡、光明,活得充实,做事也会顺利许多。因为这时你已经开始变得可敬了,也自然会得到众人的拥戴,并得到善神的护佑。所以,三界之内,轮回路上,因果相续,丝毫不差。种善因得善果,种恶因得恶果,不是不报,时候未到。行善积德必有后福,大善之人必有大福,积善之家必有余庆。而菩萨就会以无所得之心,万缘放下,无我利他,最终成就无上佛道。

  The truth is that at the momentwe develop kindness in our heart, we begin to enjoy the positive effect ofkarma. We shall feel comfortable, fulfilled, honorable and broad-minded. As aresult, things we do and people we face will all become more favorable,therefore we can achieve success more easily and smoothly. We shall berespected and supported by more people, and be protected and blessed by kindgods.

  To draw a conclusion, karmicretribution is functioning all the time and in all our life forms, withoutfailure. Positive causes lead to positive effects, and negative seeds will bearbitter fruits. No karma is escapable when it ripens. Just as the Englishproverb goes, “One good turn deserves another”。 Doing enough good things willdefinitely benefits one’s family and oneself.

  Bodhisattvas, however, willcultivate their selflessness with the wisdom of Prajna, and try to benefit allsentient beings, eventually achieving the ultimate Buddhahood.

原标题:如何认识因果(久晃法师双语开示系列)

文章转自微信公众号:久晃讲般若

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